Stanford Faculty Development Center for Medical Teachers  

Clinical Teaching Program

Each year six medical faculty are selected to attend the Stanford Faculty Development Program for training as Clinical Teaching seminar facilitators. The 1-month training provides participants with background knowledge and seminar leadership skills required to deliver a series of seven 2-hour seminars to their colleagues and to residents. Extensive opportunities to practice teaching skills are provided.

The facilitator-training program offers career development opportunties for individual faculty participants, and simultaneously provides a mechanism for institutional improvement.

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The Clinical Teaching curriculum covers seven educational categories:

The seminars are designed to:

The seminars consist of didactic presentations, group discussions, role-play exercises, video vignette review, and personal and institutional goal setting. During a follow-up sesion, participants are encouraged to develop a set of recommendations for improving their institution's environment for clinical teaching.

In acknowledgment of the complexity of teaching, the seminars embody a non-prescriptive behavioral approach for improving teaching. Faculty must be able to select effective teaching strategies while taking into account many variables simultaneously, including the content, the learners, and the context in which the teaching takes place. Thus, the seminars focus on principles, guidelines, and behavioral alternatives that teachers can use to improve their teaching effectiveness. The behavioral approach stems from the belief that intellectual understanding of general principles and processes is not necessarily sufficient to improve teaching. Knowledge and practice of teaching skills are essential. Although the content of teaching (e.g., the subject matter being taught) may be discussed during the seminars, the primary focus is on the process of teaching.

The seminars also embrace the philosophy that teaching improvement programs do not have to be primarily remedial in function. Alternatively, these seminars reflect the belief that teachers at all levels of experience and expertise can benefit from an organized review of their teaching.

Facilitator Training at Stanford
Training activities at Stanford include:

Program Faculty (1986-present): Kelley Skeff, MD, PhD; Georgette Stratos, PhD; and program alumni.

Trained CT Facilitators 1986 - March 2016 & their Institutional Affiliations at the Time of Training

ct map

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106 Institutions 198 Facilitators Program
Alameda County Medical Center, Oakland, CA Judith Wofsy CT 1991
  Davida Flattery CT 2012
Albert Einstein Medical Center, Bronx, NY Jeong Oh CT 1998
  Karin Ouchida CT 2008
  Tom Kwiatkowski CT 2009
  Cristina Gonzalez CT 2011
Al-Nahrain University College of Medicine, Baghdad, IRAQ Amal Swidan CT 2013
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Andrew Wilking CT 1994
Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA Lynn Manfred* CT 1989
Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA David Battinelli CT 1989
  Sharon Levine* CT 1998
  Subha Ramani CT 2001
Brooke Army Medical Center,
San Antonio, TX
Fred Goldner CT 1991
  Kevin McMains** CT 2016
Brown University Providence, RI Michele Cyr CT 1988
  Jennifer Jeremiah CT 1995
  Chandan Lakhiani CT 2000
  Thomas Doyle CT 2014
Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC Allen Lloyd CT 2010
Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, CHILE Carlos Reyes Abarco* CT 2003
  Carlos Aravena CT 2009
  Pablo Florenzano CT 2011
Chicago Medical School, Chicago, IL Julia Ashenhurst CT 1994
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

Brian Mandell
Kathleen Franco
CT 2000
CT 2001
Columbia University, New York, NY Susana Morales CT 1994
The Commonwealth Medical College, Williamsport, PA Margrit Shoemaker CT 2014
Creighton University, Omaha, NE Henry Sakowski CT 2000
Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH Joseph Perras CT 2002
Duke University, Durham, NC John Kihm CT 1988
  Jeffrey Wong* CT 1992
  Larry Greenblatt CT 1997
  Mamata Yanamadala CT 2008
East Carolina University, Greenville, NC Wilhelmine Wiese CT 2008
Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC Stephen Ray Mitchell CT 1994
  Craig Cheifetz* CT 2000
The George Washington University, Washington, DC Jehan El-Bayoumi* CT 2007
Hamad Med Corporation, Doha, QATAR Khalid Al-Ejji CT 2012
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Diane Brockmeyer CT 2002
H Heine University, Dusseldorf, GERMANY Matthias Hofer* CT 2001
Henry Ford Healthcare System, Detroit, MI John Buckley* CT 2003
Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN Debra Litzelman* CT 1990
  Glenda Westmoreland CT 1997
  Robert Vu CT 2003
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Laura Mumford CT 1989
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, CA Jeffrey Ilfeld CT 2006
  Pratima Gupta CT 2013
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Santa Clara, CA Elliott Wolfe CT 1986
Karolinska University Hospital, SWEDEN Jonas Sunden-Cullberg CT 2006
Keesler USAF Medical Center, Biloxi, MS Ron Kirschling CT 1990
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh,
Mohammed Abosoudah CT 2013
  Bandar Alharthi CT 2013
  Nasser Al Hamdan* CT 2013
  Naji Aljohani* CT 2013
  Mushira Enani CT 2013
Lackland Air Force Base Medical Center, San Antonio, TX Clinton Polhamus CT 1987
Letterman Army Med Center, Presidio of San Francisco, CA Leslie B. Branch CT 1986
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Charles Rohren CT 1992
  Linda Ward CT 1992
  Mark Lee CT 2002
/ Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, FL
Marc Cohen CT 1996
  Jason Szostek* CT 2010
/ Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ
Farouk Mookadam CT 2016
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA John Cunnington CT 1995
Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, OH Earl Campbell CT 1990
Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA Carolyn Clancy CT 1988
Mount Sinai Medical School, City University of New York Jeremy Boal CT 1998
  Lisa Coplit (Bensinger)* CT 2003
  Martine Sanon CT 2013
Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, VA Eric Holmboe CT 1996
North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY Saima Chaudhry CT 2007
Northwestern University, Chicago, IL Jeremy Smith CT 2003
Oakland University, Rochester, MI Francisco Davila Grijalva CT 2013
  Michael Barnes* CT 2013
  Aimee Espinosa* CT 2013
  Nicholas Maddens CT 2013
  Ovidiu Niculescu CT 2013
  Kathy Schlecht CT 2013
  Robert Starr CT 2013
Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR Diane Elliot CT 1986
/ Portland VAMC
Elizabeth Allen CT 1998
/ Portland VAMC
Andrea Cedfeldt CT 2005
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, CANADA Dianne Delva CT 2002
Quinnipiac University, School of Medicine, Hamden, CT Khuram Ghumman CT 2015
Rush University, Chicago, IL Andem Ekpenyong CT 2007
Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA Thomas Kelsey CT 1999
St. Joseph's Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI Kevin Taylor CT 1996
Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO Nandini Calamur CT 2014
Southern Illinois University School of Med, Springfield, IL Gary Rull CT 2011
Stanford University, Stanford, CA Paul Ford CT 1993
  Matilde Nino-Murcia CT 1997
  Peter Pompei* CT 2006
  Sallie DeGolia* CT 2008
  Anna Messner CT 2013
  Shashank Joshi CT 2015
/ Lucille Packard Children's Hospital
Elisa Zenni CT 1995
SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY Lynn Cleary CT 1990
  Peter Cronkright CT 2004
Texas A & M University, Temple, TX Jeffrey Clark CT 1996
Travis Air Force Base, CA Tonya Fancher CT 2000
Tufts University, Boston, MA Mary Lee CT 1991
Laura K. Snydman* CT 2008
Sora Al Rowas CT 2016
/ Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME
Marybeth Ford CT 2016
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA Chad Miller CT 2009
Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sci, Bethesda, MD Louis Pangaro* CT 1987
  Thomas Grau CT 1999
  Clifton Yu CT 2002
  Dodd Denton* CT 2004
  Rechell Rodriguez CT 2010
  Joshua Hartzell CT 2013
University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL F. Stanford Massie, Jr. CT 1999
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ William Johnson CT 1990
University of Bern, Bern, SWITZERLAND Robert Greif* CT 2007
  Natalie Urwyler CT 2011
  Kai Schnabel* CT 2012
University of Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA Eduardo Durante CT 1996
University of California, Davis, CA Mark Servis CT 1993
  Mithu Molla CT 2011
University of California, Los Angeles Judith Delafield CT 1992
  Soma Wali CT 2006
University of California, San Diego, CA Shawn Harrity
Alina Popa
CT 1993
CT 2013
University of California, San Francisco, CA Robert Wachter CT 1992
  Richard Haber CT 1997
/UCSF-Fresno Medical Educ Center
Edward Moreno CT 1999
/Fresno VAMC
Melissa Aguirre CT 2005
  Bradley Sharpe CT 2006
  Susan Roberts CT 2009
/Children's Hospital & Res. Ctr, Oakland, CA Christine Cho CT 2009
  Bradley Monash CT 2016
University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Krista Johnson CT 1999
  Sandra Valaitis CT 2005
University of Colorado, Denver, CO Mark Earnest
Shale Wong
Sylvia Oboler
CT 1994
CT 1998
CT 1987
Univ. of Florida Health Science Center, Jacksonville, FL Elisa Sottile CT 2005
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI Steven MacBride CT 1992
University of Illinois, Peoria, IL Jacqueline Fischer CT 2010
  Kelvin Wynn CT 2011
University of Illinois, Urbana - Champaign, IL Jennie Hsu-Lumetta CT 2004
University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS Mary McDonald* CT 2006
University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY Thomas Montgomery CT 1991
  Mary Burke Duke* CT 1996
University of Louisville, Louisville, KY Stephanie Call* CT 2001
University of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA James Florek CT 1988
University of Miami, Miami, FL / Miami VAMC Miguel Paniagua CT 2004
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Scott Furney CT 1997
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN Karyn Baum CT 2001
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO
Elizabeth Garrett CT 2016
/ Springfield, MO
Andrew Evans CT 2016
  Shelby Hahn CT 2016
University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE Lance Schupbach CT 2004
University of Nevada, Reno, NV Nageshwara Gullapalli* CT 2010
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM Patrick Rendon CT 2016
University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK Bryan Struck CT 2001
University of Pennsylvannia, Philadelphia, PA Amy Corcoran CT 2008
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Karen Barnard CT 2000
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY Elizabeth Cyran CT 1994
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC O'Neill, Barrett, Jr. CT 1988
University of South Florida, Tampa, FL Cuc Mai CT 2012
University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN Carol Ellis CT 1993
/ U TN, Knoxville
Julie Vannerson* CT 2005
University of Texas, Southwestern, Dallas, TX Chia-Ying Wang CT 2003
University of Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Daniel Panisko CT 2002
  Debaroti Borschel CT 2010
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Joshua LaBrin CT 2015
University of Vermont / Maine Medical Center, ME Robert Bing-You CT 1993
  Robert Trowbridge CT 2005
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Eugene Corbett, Jr. CT 1987
University of Washington, Seattle, WA/Boise VAMC, ID C. Scott Smith CT 1993
University of Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI Mark Gennis CT 1991
Uppsala University, Uppsala, SWEDEN Jonas Boberg CT 1989
  Jakob Johansson CT 2004
  Mia Ramklint CT 2012
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond Reena Hemrajani CT 2015
/ Innova Fairfax Campus, Falls Church, VA Greg Trimble CT 2012
  Spencer Liebman CT 2016
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI Nicholas Gettas CT 1995
  James Kruer* CT 1997
  Elizabeth Bankstahl CT 2015
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY

/Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Carol Storey-Johnson*
Sharda Ramsaroop
Ernie Esquivel
Elizabeth Alger*
Samar Al-Emadi
Ismail Helmi
Ibrahim Janahi
Marcellina Mian
Leopold Streletz
Thurayya Arayssi

CT 1995
CT 2007
CT 2016
CT 2007
CT 2007
CT 2007
CT 2007
CT 2007
CT 2007
CT 2009
Western University of Health Sciences, Oregon Campus, Corvallis, OR Charlene Carroll (Clark)  
Western University of Health Sciences, Oregon Campus, Corvallis, OR / Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center Charlene Clark
Robert Hughes
CT 2014
CT 2014
Western University, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, London, Ontario, CANADA Josee Paradis CT 2015
Wright State University, Dayton, OH Cynthia Ledford CT 1999
Wright-Patterson Air Force Medical Center, OH Robert Hawkins* CT 1989
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT Nicholas Fiebach CT 1995
  Dana Dunne CT 2014
*Re-trained in Basic Science in May and November 2007; September 2008; September 2010; May 2012 and March 2015.
Home-site Seminars
During the first year following the training at Stanford, the facilitators return to their home institutions to conduct the seminars for medical teachers. As part of the evaluation of this train-the-trainer diffusion process, the facilitators are asked to play a critical role in gathering data during the post-training year. Evaluation activities include questionnaire administration, video- recording of seminars and personal record keeping during the implementation of training.

The teaching of seminars in subsequent years is based on the size and need of individual home site institutions. Trained facilitators also serve as regional and national faculty development resources for instructional improvement.

Results of Program Evaluation
Comments from SFDC-trained Clinical Teaching Facilitators

Several factors contribute to the success of the program. First, the framework for clinical teaching has proven to be valid, durable, and accepted by faculty and housestaff as a means to analyze their teaching methods. [S]econd ... is the ability of the SFDC to address the ongoing needs of the participants, providing support, problem solving, and networking. A third feature is the meticulous attention to details of the process of faculty development and its outcomes; at each step of the way, the program has been assessed, modifications made, and the program improved. A final critical factor is the uniqueness of the faculty coordinating the SFDP. They were enthusiastic four years ago, and that enthusiasm has increased. Their commitment, willingness to share and allow participants ownership of the program at their own institution, while maintaining strong collegial and resource support, have been important in the program's success." "While I was going through the ... course at Stanford I was getting a great deal of insight, not only into teaching but also into behavioral psychology, my own limitations as a teacher and as a human being, and learner limitations as human beings. The overall effect was extremely stimulating and very insightful ... one of the most significant events in my life."

"On a personal level, the training has also given me some incredibly powerful tools for analysis of my own teaching, and I find myself regularly more cognizant of why one method or technique may be successful and another may not in any given teaching circumstance. The tools of analyzing effectiveness seem to cross over into non-teaching settings and I think have afforded me with some additional communication and administrative skills."

Comments from Faculty Participants in Home-site Seminars

The course made me effectively analyze the set of behaviors that make up effective teaching. Previously, I envisioned effective teaching as a 'gift' that you either had or didn't."

"I thoroughly enjoyed the role plays and thought they were most helpful."

"Having a framework for what was merely intuitive before is very helpful."

"The framework gave me a ... systematic way to 'experiment' in various teaching settings."

"Enhancing cooperative interactions was very special because in our institution this provided rare and positive interaction between departments."

"Helped build self confidence and collegial atmosphere."

Comments from Residents

It was the first time that someone had talked to me about teaching, what it means to be a teacher, and how to do it."

"To see oneself on videotape and to see all the mannerisms and the interactions, and even the failure of interactions, I thought was very valuable. It was powerful in the seminar to look at (teaching) behaviors and to have the opportunity to see one's own behaviors, to reflect on them, and then to reproduce them in a better way."

"The seminars gave me a vocabulary and the concepts to understand and describe what goes on in my teaching and I think that a more specific vocabulary yields a more precise and a richer understanding."

"The role play was the most valuable. It really became evident when one tried to apply what had been talked about; it really underscored the points that were taught and made it much more interesting. It ingrained it much more deeply. And, for me, it was fun to do that."

"It was a learning experience in the sense of learning how to be more self-aware and how to be more conscious of what I do (as a teacher)."


Last modified 12.02.2016

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