Stanford Faculty Development Center for Medical Teachers  

Clinical Teaching Program

Each year six medical faculty are selected to attend the Stanford Faculty Development Program for training as Clinical Teaching seminar facilitators. The 1-month training provides participants with background knowledge and seminar leadership skills required to deliver a series of seven 2-hour seminars to their colleagues and to residents. Extensive opportunities to practice teaching skills are provided.

The facilitator-training program offers career development opportunties for individual faculty participants, and simultaneously provides a mechanism for institutional improvement.

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The Clinical Teaching curriculum covers seven educational categories:

The seminars are designed to:

The seminars consist of didactic presentations, group discussions, role-play exercises, video vignette review, and personal and institutional goal setting. During a follow-up sesion, participants are encouraged to develop a set of recommendations for improving their institution's environment for clinical teaching.

In acknowledgment of the complexity of teaching, the seminars embody a non-prescriptive behavioral approach for improving teaching. Faculty must be able to select effective teaching strategies while taking into account many variables simultaneously, including the content, the learners, and the context in which the teaching takes place. Thus, the seminars focus on principles, guidelines, and behavioral alternatives that teachers can use to improve their teaching effectiveness. The behavioral approach stems from the belief that intellectual understanding of general principles and processes is not necessarily sufficient to improve teaching. Knowledge and practice of teaching skills are essential. Although the content of teaching (e.g., the subject matter being taught) may be discussed during the seminars, the primary focus is on the process of teaching.

The seminars also embrace the philosophy that teaching improvement programs do not have to be primarily remedial in function. Alternatively, these seminars reflect the belief that teachers at all levels of experience and expertise can benefit from an organized review of their teaching.

Facilitator Training at Stanford
Training activities at Stanford include:

Program Faculty (1986-present): Kelley Skeff, MD, PhD; Georgette Stratos, PhD; and program alumni.

Trained CT Facilitators 1986 - March 2018 & their Institutional Affiliations at the Time of Training

ct map

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109 Institutions 209 Facilitators Program
Alameda County Medical Center, Oakland, CA Judith Wofsy CT 1991
  Davida Flattery CT 2012
Albert Einstein Medical Center, Bronx, NY Jeong Oh CT 1998
  Karin Ouchida CT 2008
  Tom Kwiatkowski CT 2009
  Cristina Gonzalez CT 2011
Al-Nahrain College of Medicine, Baghdad, IRAQ Amal Swidan CT 2013
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Andrew Wilking CT 1994
Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA Lynn Manfred* CT 1989
Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA David Battinelli CT 1989
  Sharon Levine* CT 1998
  Subha Ramani CT 2001
Brooke Army Medical Center,
San Antonio, TX
Fred Goldner CT 1991
  Kevin McMains** CT 2016
Brown University Providence, RI Michele Cyr CT 1988
  Jennifer Jeremiah CT 1995
  Chandan Lakhiani CT 2000
/ Southcoast Health System, Fall River, RI
Thomas Doyle CT 2014
Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC Allen Lloyd CT 2010
Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, CHILE Carlos Reyes Abarca* CT 2003
  Carlos Aravena CT 2009
  Pablo Florenzano CT 2011
Chicago Medical School, Chicago, IL Julia Ashenhurst CT 1994
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH Brian Mandell CT 2000
  Kathleen Franco CT 2001
Columbia University, New York, NY Susana Morales CT 1994
The Commonwealth Medical College, Williamsport, PA Margrit Shoemaker CT 2014
Creighton University, Omaha, NE Henry Sakowski CT 2000
Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH Joseph Perras CT 2002
Duke University, Durham, NC John Kihm CT 1988
  Jeffrey Wong* CT 1992
  Lawrence Greenblatt CT 1997
  Mamata Yanamadala CT 2008
East Carolina University, Greenville, NC Wilhelmine Wiese CT 2008
Georgetown University, Washington, DC Stephen Ray Mitchell CT 1994
  Craig Cheifetz* CT 2000
The George Washington University, Washington, DC Jehan El-Bayoumi* CT 2007
H. Heine University, Dusseldorf, GERMANY Matthias Hofer* CT 2001
Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QATAR Khalid Al-Ejji CT 2012
Harvard University, Boston, MA Diane Brockmeyer CT 2002
Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI John Buckley* CT 2003
Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN Debra Litzelman* CT 1990
  Glenda Westmoreland CT 1997
  Robert Vu CT 2003
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Laura Mumford CT 1989
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, CA Jeffrey Ilfeld CT 2006
  Pratima Gupta CT 2013
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Santa Clara, CA Elliott Wolfe CT 1986
Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SWEDEN Jonas Sunden-Cullberg CT 2006
Keesler USAF Medical Center, Biloxi, MS Ron Kirschling CT 1990
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA Mohammed Abosoudah CT 2013
  Nasser Al Hamdan* CT 2013
  Bandar Alharthi CT 2013
  Naji Aljohani* CT 2013
  Mushira Enani CT 2013
Lackland Air Force Base Medical Center, San Antonio, TX Clinton Polhamus CT 1987
Letterman Army Medical Center, Presidio of San Francisco, CA Leslie B. Branch CT 1986
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Charles Rohren CT 1992
  Linda Ward CT 1992
/ Jacksonville, FL
Marc Cohen CT 1996
  Mark Lee CT 2002
  Jason Szostek* CT 2010
/ Scottsdale, AZ
Farouk Mookadam CT 2016
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA John Cunnington CT 1995
Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, OH Earl Campbell CT 1990
Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA Carolyn Clancy CT 1988
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY Jeremy Boal CT 1998
  Lisa Coplit (Bensinger) * CT 2003
  Martine Sanon CT 2013
Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, VA Eric Holmboe CT 1996
North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY Saima Chaudhry CT 2007
Northwestern University, Chicago, IL Jeremy Smith CT 2003
Oakland University, Rochester, MI Francisco Davila Grijalva CT 2013
  Michael Barnes* CT 2013
  Aimee Espinosa* CT 2013
  Nicholas Maddens CT 2013
  Ovidiu Niculescu CT 2013
  Kathy Schlecht CT 2013
  Robert Starr CT 2013
Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR Diane Elliot CT 1986
/ Portland VAMC
Elizabeth Allen CT 1998
/ Portland VAMC
Andrea Cedfeldt CT 2005
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, CANADA Dianne Delva CT 2002
Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT Khuram Ghumman CT 2015
Rush University, Chicago, IL Andem Ekpenyong CT 2007
Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO Nandini Calamur CT 2014
Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA Thomas Kelsey CT 1999
Southern Illinois University, Springfield, IL Gary Rull CT 2011
St. Joseph's Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI Kevin Taylor CT 1996
Stanford University, Stanford, CA Paul Ford CT 1993
/ Lucille Packard Children's Hospital
Elisa Zenni CT 1995
  Matilde Nino-Murcia CT 1997
  Peter Pompei* CT 2006
  Sallie DeGolia* CT 2008
  Anna Messner CT 2013
  Shashank Joshi CT 2015
Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY Kaveh Sadigh CT 2017
SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY Lynn Cleary CT 1990
  Peter Cronkright CT 2004
Texas A & M University / Scott & White Clinic, Temple, TX Jeffrey Clark CT 1996
Travis Air Force Base Medical Center, CA Tonya Fancher CT 2000
Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA Mary Lee CT 1991
Laura K. Snydman* CT 2008
Sora Al Rowas CT 2016
/ Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME
Marybeth Ford CT 2016
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA Chad Miller CT 2009
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD Louis Pangaro* CT 1987
  Thomas Grau CT 1999
  Clifton Yu CT 2002
  Dodd Denton* CT 2004
  Rechell Rodriguez CT 2010
  Joshua Hartzell CT 2013
University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL F. Stanford Massie, Jr. CT 1999
  Peter Phan CT 2017
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ William Johnson CT 1990
University of Bern, Bern, SWITZERLAND Robert Greif* CT 2007
  Natalie Urwyler CT 2011
  Kai Schnabel* CT 2012
University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA Eduardo Durante CT 1996
University of California, Davis, CA Mark Servis CT 1993
  Mithu Molla CT 2011
University of California, Irvine, CA Samuel Lai CT 2017
University of California, Los Angeles, CA / West LA VAMC Judith Delafield CT 1992
/ Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar
Soma Wali CT 2006
/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood
Brandon Ito CT 2018
/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood
Deborah Lehman CT 2018
/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood
Erica Oberman CT 2018
/ Harbor - UCLA Medical Center, Torrance
Ryan Pedigo CT 2018
/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood
Jennifer Singer CT 2018
/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood
Lisa Skinner CT 2018
University of California, San Diego, CA Shawn Harrity CT 1993
  Alina Popa CT 2013
University of California, San Francisco, CA Robert Wachter CT 1992
  Richard Haber CT 1997
/ UCSF Fresno Medical Education & Research
Edward Moreno CT 1999
/ UCSF Fresno Medical Education & Research
Melissa Aguirre CT 2005
  Bradley Sharpe CT 2006
/ Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA
Christine Cho CT 2009
/ UCSF Fresno Medical Education Program
Susan Roberts CT 2009
  Bradley Monash CT 2016
University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Krista Johnson CT 1999
  Sandra Valaitis CT 2005
University of Colorado, Denver, CO / Denver VAMC Sylvia Oboler CT 1987
  Mark Earnest CT 1994
  Shale Wong CT 1998
University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL Elisa Sottile CT 2005
University of Hawaii / Honolulu VAMC, Oahu, HI Steven MacBride CT 1992
University of Illinois, Peoria, IL Jacqueline Fischer CT 2010
  Kelvin Wynn CT 2011
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Jennie Hsu-Lumetta* CT 2004
University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS Mary McDonald* CT 2006
University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY Thomas Montgomery CT 1991
  Mary Duke (Burke)* CT 1996
University of Louisville, Louisville, KY Stephanie Call* CT 2001
University of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA James Florek CT 1988
University of Miami, Miami, FL / Miami VAMC Miguel Paniagua CT 2004
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Scott Furney CT 1997
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN Karyn Baum CT 2001
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO / Springfield Clinical Campus
Andrew Evans CT 2016
Elizabeth Garrett CT 2016
/ Springfield Clinical Campus
Shelby Hahn CT 2016
University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE Lance Schupbach CT 2004
University of Nevada, Reno, NV Nageshwara Gullapalli* CT 2010
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM Patrick Rendon CT 2016
University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK Bryan Struck CT 2001
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Amy Westcott (Corcoran) CT 2008
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Karen Barnard CT 2000
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY Elizabeth Cyran CT 1994
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC O'Neill, Barrett, Jr. CT 1988
University of South Florida, Tampa, FL Cuc Mai CT 2012
University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN / Knoxville Carol Ellis CT 1993
Julie Vannerson* CT 2005
University of Texas at San Antonio, TX / So TX Veterans Health Care System Kevin McMains** CT 2016
University of Texas, Southwestern, Dallas, TX Chia-Ying Wang CT 2003
University of Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Daniel Panisko CT 2002
  Debaroti Borschel CT 2010
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Joshua LaBrin CT 2015
University of Vermont / Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME Robert Bing-You CT 1993
/ Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME
Robert Trowbridge CT 2005
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Eugene Corbett, Jr. CT 1987
University of Washington, Seattle, WA / Boise VAMC, ID C. Scott Smith CT 1993
University of Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI Mark Gennis CT 1991
Uppsala University, Uppsala, SWEDEN Jonas Boberg CT 1989
  Jakob Johansson CT 2004
  Mia Ramklint CT 2012
Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Lier Psychiatric Hospital, Drammen, NORWAY Lise Grondahl CT 2017
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA    
/ Innova Fairfax Campus, Falls Church
Gregory Trimble CT 2012
  Reena Hemrajani CT 2015
  Spencer Liebman CT 2016
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI Nicholas Gettas CT 1995
  James Kruer* CT 1997
  Elizabeth Bankstahl CT 2015
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY Carol Storey-Johnson* CT 1995
  Sharda Ramsaroop CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Elizabeth Alger* CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Samar Al-Emadi CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Ismail Helmi CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Ibrahim Janahi CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Marcellina Mian CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Leopold Streletz CT 2007
/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR
Thurayya Arayssi CT 2009
  Ernie Esquivel CT 2016
Western University of Health Sciences, OR Campus, Corvallis, OR Charlene Carroll (Clark) CT 2014
/ Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center
Robert Hughes CT 2014
Western University, London, Ontario, CANADA Josee Paradis CT 2015
Wright State University, Dayton, OH Cynthia Ledford CT 1999
Wright-Patterson Air Force Medical Center, OH Robert Hawkins* CT 1989
Yale University, New Haven, CT Nicholas Fiebach CT 1995
  Dana Dunne CT 2014
  Kevin Pei CT 2017
*Re-trained in Basic Science Teaching in May and November 2007; September 2008; September 2010; May 2012 and March 2015.
Home-site Seminars
During the first year following the training at Stanford, the facilitators return to their home institutions to conduct the seminars for medical teachers. As part of the evaluation of this train-the-trainer diffusion process, the facilitators are asked to play a critical role in gathering data during the post-training year. Evaluation activities include questionnaire administration, video- recording of seminars and personal record keeping during the implementation of training.

The teaching of seminars in subsequent years is based on the size and need of individual home site institutions. Trained facilitators also serve as regional and national faculty development resources for instructional improvement.

Results of Program Evaluation
Comments from SFDC-trained Clinical Teaching Facilitators

Several factors contribute to the success of the program. First, the framework for clinical teaching has proven to be valid, durable, and accepted by faculty and housestaff as a means to analyze their teaching methods. [S]econd ... is the ability of the SFDC to address the ongoing needs of the participants, providing support, problem solving, and networking. A third feature is the meticulous attention to details of the process of faculty development and its outcomes; at each step of the way, the program has been assessed, modifications made, and the program improved. A final critical factor is the uniqueness of the faculty coordinating the SFDP. They were enthusiastic four years ago, and that enthusiasm has increased. Their commitment, willingness to share and allow participants ownership of the program at their own institution, while maintaining strong collegial and resource support, have been important in the program's success." "While I was going through the ... course at Stanford I was getting a great deal of insight, not only into teaching but also into behavioral psychology, my own limitations as a teacher and as a human being, and learner limitations as human beings. The overall effect was extremely stimulating and very insightful ... one of the most significant events in my life."

"On a personal level, the training has also given me some incredibly powerful tools for analysis of my own teaching, and I find myself regularly more cognizant of why one method or technique may be successful and another may not in any given teaching circumstance. The tools of analyzing effectiveness seem to cross over into non-teaching settings and I think have afforded me with some additional communication and administrative skills."

Comments from Faculty Participants in Home-site Seminars

The course made me effectively analyze the set of behaviors that make up effective teaching. Previously, I envisioned effective teaching as a 'gift' that you either had or didn't."

"I thoroughly enjoyed the role plays and thought they were most helpful."

"Having a framework for what was merely intuitive before is very helpful."

"The framework gave me a ... systematic way to 'experiment' in various teaching settings."

"Enhancing cooperative interactions was very special because in our institution this provided rare and positive interaction between departments."

"Helped build self confidence and collegial atmosphere."

Comments from Residents

It was the first time that someone had talked to me about teaching, what it means to be a teacher, and how to do it."

"To see oneself on videotape and to see all the mannerisms and the interactions, and even the failure of interactions, I thought was very valuable. It was powerful in the seminar to look at (teaching) behaviors and to have the opportunity to see one's own behaviors, to reflect on them, and then to reproduce them in a better way."

"The seminars gave me a vocabulary and the concepts to understand and describe what goes on in my teaching and I think that a more specific vocabulary yields a more precise and a richer understanding."

"The role play was the most valuable. It really became evident when one tried to apply what had been talked about; it really underscored the points that were taught and made it much more interesting. It ingrained it much more deeply. And, for me, it was fun to do that."

"It was a learning experience in the sense of learning how to be more self-aware and how to be more conscious of what I do (as a teacher)."


Last modified 07.26.2018

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